Shoulder prosthesis surgery is indicated when conservative and rehabilitative treatment has not brought the expected benefits. Shoulder pain and disability present several conditions for which the surgical option of joint replacement is being considered.
It usually occurs after the age of fifty and rarely in younger patients. The cause is identified in a progressive thinning of the articular cartilage which is no longer able to perform the characteristic function of "shock absorber" causing, with the intercession of time, a decrease in shoulder movement and an increase in pain which do not allow the carrying out of the normal daily activities to the point of preventing sleep at night.
Rheumatoid arthritis of the shoulder
It is a rheumatological disease that involves a chronic inflammation of the synovial membrane which, losing its functionality, degrades the cartilage.
Post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the shoulder
It is determined following a shoulder injury due to which the joint structures are compromised and lead to a deterioration of the cartilage with symptoms of severe shoulder pain and limitation of movement.
Avascular necrosis of the shoulder
Avascular necrosis, associated with severe pain in the shoulder, occurs due to a reduction in blood circulation resulting in the death of bone cells in the humeral head. Vascular necrosis can also be caused by the chronic use of steroids, a shoulder fracture in which the lesion affects the blood vessels that carry nourishment to the humeral head, blood diseases or alcohol abuse.
Previous unsuccessful shoulder surgeries: Patients who have undergone surgical treatments that have involved an infection or a dislocation of the prosthetic implant or greater wear of the articular cartilage often come to our observation, in which case it is a second surgical procedure was required.
The types of shoulder prostheses are divided into:
- Anatomic shoulder arthroplasty: This surgical procedure, also used to treat arthritis of the glenohumeral joint, involves replacing the head of the humerus.
- Total shoulder arthroplasty: performed to treat osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint, this procedure, also called shoulder joint replacement, involves replacing the proximal part of the humerus or humeral head and the surface of the glenoid on the scapular side .
- Reverse shoulder arthroplasty: performed to treat osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint associated with injury or functional failure of the rotator cuff tendons.